Lia is a doctor of economics from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (URFJ), master of philosophy in economics from the University of Cambridge, master`s degree (credit diploma without defense of the doctoral thesis) from the EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance (EPGE) of the FGV and bachelor in economics from the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ). U.S. trade in goods and services with Brazil totaled $105.1 billion in 2019. Brazil and China are members of an economic organization called BRICS, which also includes Russia, India and South Africa. China contributes 41% of the operating budget. Brazil contributes 18% of the operating budget. China and Brazil are part of a broader goal of increasing trade between emerging and developing markets.  Somewhat counterintuitive, the persistent softness of Brazilian consumer demand could allow Chinese producers with well-equipped financial partners to strengthen their position in the sector, as more for-profit U.S., European and Asian competitors are more likely to move to more lucrative markets. Mining. Chinese companies have played an important role both as a client and as an investor in the Brazilian mining industry. In August 2020, despite the negative impact of COVID-19 on its global exports, VALE plans to invest in all facilities to increase production to meet China`s growing demand, including a joint venture in Para with China`s Concremat, to jointly build a flat steel plant worth $370 million.
If U.S. companies are not well placed to finance or participate in infrastructure or other work in Brazil, the United States should coordinate Japan, South Korea, India, the European Union and other partners and actively cooperate with other partners, with a proven commitment to democracy, respect for intellectual property and respect for the rule of law to provide sustainable alternatives to Chinese investment and financing. In this way, the United States and like-minded partners will be able to support Brazil`s long-term development and its role as trusted partners in the region, rather than leaving the field of Chinese credit and investment offers undisputed. These agreements create benefits for Brazil, but are designed to channel long-term value and benefits for the CPP, its businesses and employees. Formal relations with the Republic of China ended after the Chinese civil war (1945-1949) and did not resume with the People`s Republic of China until 1974.  In the 21st century, Brazilian businessmen were somewhat frustrated by what the Financial Times described as a slow pace of development for some aspects of the relationship. For example, in 2004, Brazil officially recognized China as a market economy, but until 2009, the corresponding changes to trade agreements were not implemented.
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