In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers. Unseated employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many do not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements.  In addition, the series „Evolution of Working Life in Europe: EURWORK`s Annual Retrospective“ contains up-to-date information on collective bargaining. A democratic approval procedure by which the members of the bargaining unit vote in favour of the adoption or rejection of the interim collective agreement concluded by the University and the Union. The ratification vote will take place at the end of collective bargaining, following an interim agreement between the university and the Union. All members of the bargaining unit have the right to vote, with the exception of CUPE 3902, which requires that the interim agreement be approved at an „ascension session“ prior to the tariff-wide vote. Each member of the bargaining unit gets one vote. If more than half of the votes are to accept the provisional agreement, it will be concluded and implemented. Through its eurofound network of correspondents, Eurofound collects information at national level on collective bargaining in the EU.
To learn more, collective bargaining, which is at the heart of organized labour relations, takes place in different institutional environments. National systems differ in the role of collective bargaining and legislation in labour market regulation, in the levels at which negotiations are conducted (intersectoral, cross-sectoral, business and employment, regional, professional) and in the way negotiations at different levels can be linked (joint). The degree of centralization and coordination of collective bargaining – and in particular wage negotiations – are important features of the system, which have implications for both the labour market and macroeconomic performance. The result of collective bargaining is usually a collective agreement. Such agreements can govern both the procedures for relations between the signatory parties and the conditions of employment of workers covered by the agreement, such as wages and working time. Collective bargaining and the voice of workers are important workers` rights and potentially powerful facilitators of an inclusive labour market. As digital transformation, globalization and demographic changes reorganize the labour market, collective bargaining is well positioned to find solutions to the collective challenges that lie ahead. Yet their ability to provide is threatened by the weakening of labour relations in many countries, the prosperity of new forms of employment, often more precarious, and the gradual individualization of labour relations. Political mandate on collective bargaining and gender: Can collective bargaining help close the gender pay gap in atypical occupations? While the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union recognises the autonomy of social partners, particularly with regard to wage negotiations, EU policy nevertheless exerts considerable influence on collective bargaining and on the wider industrial relations system.
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