The issue of setting a temporary target to reverse the trend towards degradation of natural resources has led to differences of opinion between countries, as well as references to the precautionary principle and ecosystem approach, as well as the principle of „common but differentiated responsibilities“ adopted in Rio. The debate on the need for enhanced governance at the international and national levels (the first highlighted by developing countries and the latter by industrialized countries), the role of THE ORGANISATION in monitoring the global transport state, partnerships and their possible modalities, as well as the relationship between human rights and environmental protection, have also been the subject of controversy. As far as the political engagement of the parties is concerned, the declaration is a more general statement than the Rio Declaration. It is an agreement that focuses in particular on „global conditions“, which pose a serious threat to the sustainable development of our populations, including chronic hunger; Malnutrition Occupation abroad; armed conflicts; Illicit drug problems Organized crime; Corruption; natural disasters; illicit arms trafficking; Trafficking in human beings; Terrorism Intolerance and incitement to racial, ethnic, religious and other hatred; xenophobia; and endemic, communicable and chronic diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. [1] United Nations: World Summit for Sustainable Development. Johannesburg. 2002 www.johannesburg.org A number of countries also used the Johannesburg Summit to announce the ratification of various multilateral environmental agreements and other sustainable development agreements. Russia, China, India and others have agreed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on climate change and, once these commitments are met, the Kyoto Protocol will enter into force. Canada also announced its intention to submit a vote on ratification to Parliament before the end of the year. PROTOCOLE KYOTO: Extension of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty signed by almost all countries to mitigate climate change. In early 2008, the United States was the only industrialized country not to have ratified the Kyoto Protocol, which is expected to be replaced by an improved agreement and updated from 2012.

Other commitments include reducing biodiversity loss by 2010; Reducing fishing to its peak by 2015; Minimize the effects of chemical production and use on human health and the environment by 2020; Implementation of national sustainable development strategies by 2005; Approval of a $3 billion replenishment of the Global Environment Fund (GEF). The latter agreement included an agreement on the fight against desertification among environmental projects funded by the GEF (in addition to projects on climate change, biodiversity, persistent organic pollutants, international waters and the protection of the ozone layer). In a way, it is only now that we are beginning to assess the success of the Rio conference, which took place ten years earlier. Compared to the WSSD, which focused on implementation and not on new visions, treaties and agreements, Rio has led to a radical paradigm shift in the thinking of sustainable development and to new legally binding agreements such as those dealing with biodiversity and climate change. However, in subsequent years, high-level political interest and commitment to sustainable development declined. Key WSSD outcomes included a negotiated implementation plan, a political declaration, and a series of partnerships and implementation initiatives [1]. New targets and agreements have been negotiated in a number of important areas, such as sanitation. Previous agreements, such as those on achieving the Millennium Development Goals [4], have also been reaffirmed, making the Johannesburg Implementation Plan a somewhat eclectic mix of new and ant-based agreements and affirmations.

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